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Resin is a natural or synthetic compound which begins in a highly viscous state and hardens with treatment. Typically, resin is soluble in alcohol, but not in water. There are a number of different classes of resin, depending on exact chemical composition and potential uses.

For the most part, polymers made with resins are actually made with synthetic resin, which is cheaper and easier to refine. Synthetic resin is much more stable, predictable, and uniform than natural resin as well, since it is made under controlled conditions without the possibility of the introduction of impurities. These resins are made by combining chemicals in a laboratory to stimulate a reaction which results in the formulation of a resinous compound. Once formed, the resin can be used in the production of plastics, paints, and many of the same substances that natural resin is used in.

In chemistry, epoxy or polyepoxide is a thermosetting epoxide polymer that cures (polymerizes and crosslinks) when mixed with a catalyzing agent or hardener. Most common epoxy resins are produced from a reaction between epichlorohydrin and bisphenol-A. The first commercial attempts to prepare resins from epichlorohydrin were made in 1927 in the United States.

Epoxy is a copolymer; that is, it is formed from two different chemicals. These are referred to as the "resin" and the "hardener". The resin consists of monomers or short chain polymers with an epoxide group at either end. Most common epoxy resins are produced from a reaction between epichlorohydrin and bisphenol-A, though the latter may be replaced by similar chemicals. The hardener consists of polyamine monomers, for example Triethylenetetramine (TETA). When these compounds are mixed together, the amine groups react with the epoxide groups to form a covalent bond. Each NH group can react with an epoxide group, so that the resulting polymer is heavily crosslinked, and is thus rigid and strong.
The process of polymerization is called "curing", and can be controlled through temperature, choice of resin and hardener compounds, and the ratio of said compounds; the process can take minutes to hours. Some formulations benefit from heating during the cure period, whereas others simply require time, and ambient temperatures.
Epoxy coatings are also widely used as primers to improve the adhesion of automotive and marine paints especially on metal surfaces where corrosion (rusting) resistance is important. Metal cans and containers are often coated with epoxy to prevent rusting, especially for foods like tomatoes that are acidic. Epoxy resins are also used for high performance and decorative flooring applications especially terrazzo flooring, chip flooring  and colored aggregate flooring

Polyester is a category of polymers which contain the ester functional group in their main chain.

A polyurethane, commonly abbreviated PU, is any polymer consisting of a chain of organic units joined by urethane (carbamate) links. Polyurethane polymers are formed through step-growth polymerization by reacting a monomer containing at least two isocyanate functional groups with another monomer containing at least two hydroxyl (alcohol) groups in the presence of a catalyst.

Polyurethane materials are commonly formulated as paints and varnishes for finishing coats to protect or seal wood. This use results in a hard, abrasion-resistant, and durable coating that is popular for hardwood floors,

Acrylic paint is fast-drying paint containing pigment suspended in an acrylic polymer emulsion. Acrylic paints can be diluted with water, but become water-resistant when dry. Depending on how much the paint is diluted (with water) or modified with acrylic gels, mediums, or pastes, the finished acrylic painting can resemble a watercolor or an oil painting, or have its own unique characteristics not attainable with other media.

Basic Raw Material for manufacturing resins

Epichlorohydrin is an organochlorine compound and an epoxide. This is a colorless liquid with a pungent, garlic-like odor, insoluble in water, but miscible with most polar molecule|polar Organic compound|organic solvents.Epichlorohydrin is a highly reactive compound and is used in the production of glycerol, plastics, epoxy glues and Epoxy resin], and elastomers. In contact with water, epichlorohydrin hydrolyzes to 3-MCPD, a carcinogen found in food.

Purified Terephthalic Acid PTA
Terephthalic acid is the organic compound with formula C6H4(COOH)2. This colourless solid is a commodity chemical, used principally as a precursor to the polyester PET, used to make clothing and plastic bottles. Several billion kilograms are produced annually. It is one of three isomeric phthalic acids.

Neopentylglycol (NPG)

Neopentylglycol (NPG) is a unique polyalcohol offering superior performance advantages in many end-use applications due to its high chemical and thermal stability.
Neopentylglycol (2, 2-dimethyl-1, 3-propanediol) is a unique diol offering superior performance advantages in many end-use applications. These advantages are derived from its chemical structure. The location of the hydroxyl groups on primary carbon atoms allows rapid esterification. Additionally, the two methyl groups, instead of the usual two hydrogen atoms, on the alpha carbon atom are responsible for the high chemical and thermal stability of Neopentylglycol and it derivatives.

Trimellitic Anhydride
Trimellitic anhydride (1,3-dihydro-1,3-dioxo-5-isobenzofurancarboxylic acid in IUPAC systematic name) has similar structure to phthalic anhydride with the exception of the third functionality on the aromatic ring.

Isophthalic acid PIA
Isophthalic Acid (PIA) is the industry standard diacid component in high-quality alkyds and polyester resins for industrial coatings and unsaturated polyesters for fiberglass-reinforced plastics applications.

BPA stands for bisphenol A
BPA stands for bisphenol A. It is an organic chemical which is the essential basic building block (intermediate) for polycarbonate plastic and epoxy resins. Around two thirds of all BPA is used to produce polycarbonate plastic, which is a highly durable, versatile, heat and shatter-resistant and transparent plastic found in a wide range of essential consumer applications.


Related pages.............Epichlorohydrin  Terephthalic acid  Titanium dioxide Neopentylglycol (NPG) Trimellitic anhydride Isophthalic Acid (PIA) carbon black
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Article/information contributed by.............. Let's Finish it Team

This article is licensed under the  GNU Free Documentation License